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TRIBAL COURT DEVELOPMENT

ALASKA TRIBES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1: Tribal Courts - A Historical Perspective

     Introduction

     Types of Tribal Courts

          Traditional Tribal Courts
          CFR Courts (Code of Federal Regulations)
          Modern Tribal Courts

     History of Tribal Court Jurisdiction in the U.S.

     Brief History of Alaska Tribal Status and Courts

          Venetie Tax Case and Indian Country
          State Recognition of Tribes and Tribal Courts in Alaska (John v Baker; C.R.H.)

     Conclusion

Chapter 2 : Tribal Court Jurisdiction - Alaska Tribes

     Introduction

     Jurisdiction Terminology - General Categories of Jurisdiction

     Territorial Jurisdiction - Indian Country

     Personal Jurisdiction - Tribal Members and Protecting Tribal Members

     Subject Matter Jurisdiction - Subjects Tribal Courts Handle

     Connection between Jurisdiction and Due Process

     Path within the Tribe for Exercising Tribal Jurisdiction

     Concurrent Jurisdiction - Comity and Full Faith and Credit

     Concurrent Jurisdiction Between Tribes (Comity Guidelines for Tribes)
     State Jurisdiction under ICWA - Transferring Cases to Tribes
     Criminal Jurisdiction
     Effects of the Venetie, John, and C.R.H cases on Tribal Jurisdiction
     Effects of P.L. 280 on Tribal Jurisdiction

     Conclusion

Chapter 3 : Tribal Court Structures

     Introduction

     Separation of Powers
     Tribal Court Structures
     Structures of Tribal Courts and Conflicts of Interest
     Appellate Court Structures
     Intertribal Court Structures
          Northwest Intertribal Court System
          Southwest Intertribal Court of Appeals
     Tribal Youth Courts and Other Specialty Tribal Courts
     Conclusion

Chapter 4 : Tribal Court Procedures

     Introduction

     Due Process and the Indian Civil Rights Act
     Due Process and the John v Baker case
     Beginning a Tribal Court Case: Petitions to Use the Tribal Court and Complaints
     Procedures for Hearings
     Options for Orders and Sentencing
     Appellate Court Procedure
     Conclusion

Chapter 5 : Subject Matter for Tribal Courts

     Introduction

     Children’s Subjects

          Adoptions

          Child Custody

          Child Protection

          Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA)

     Domestic Violence

          Violence Against Women Act

          Alaska’s Central Registry System
          State and Tribal Jurisdiction over Domestic Violence
          Practical Issues for Enforcing Tribal Protective Orders
     Protection of Elders and Vulnerable Adults
     Marriages, Divorces, and Annulments
     Probate
     Cultural Protections
     Law and Order - Health and Safety
     Alcohol Regulation
     Employment Issues
     Internal Tribal Government Matters
     Environmental Regulation
     Conclusion

Chapter 6 : Tribal Youth Court Development

     Introduction

     What is a tribal youth court?

     Structure Options

     Procedure Options

     Creating Sentences Designed to Help and Heal

     Planning for a tribal youth court

     Conclusion

Chapter 7 : Judicial Ethics

     Introduction

     Conflicts of Interest
     Confidentiality
     Respectful Behavior
     Sample Ethics Ordinance
     Traditional Tribal Values and Ethics
     Conclusion

Chapter 8 : Tribal Court Management Issues

     Introduction

     Tribal Court Clerks

     Tribal Court Records

     Court Calendar

     Tribal Court Forms

     Tribal Court Seals, Certification Stamps, Date Stamps

     Financial Affairs of Tribal Courts

     Conclusion

Chapter 9 : Enforcement of Tribal Court Decisions

     Introduction

     Enforcement of tribal court decisions within the village

          Gathering acceptance among tribal members

          Creating respected court structures, procedures, and ethics standards

          Adopting realistic and culturally appropriate laws

          Getting cases into tribal court

          Follow-through on tribal court orders

     Recognition and Enforcement of tribal court decisions outside the village

          Tribal jurisdiction issues

          Public relation networks

          Building common ground

          Due process, comity, and full faith and credit

     Conclusion

Appendix

A:    Indian Civil Rights Act

B:    Sample Tribal Court Ordinances
                    Itsa Village Tribal Court Structure
                    Itsa Village Tribal Court Procedures
                    Itsa Village Court of Appeals
                    Itsa Village Tribal Youth Court Structures and Procedures

© Tanana Chiefs Conference, Inc. and Lisa Jaeger
 122 First Avenue, Suite 600
 Fairbanks, Alaska 99701
 (907)452-8251